Human growth hormone is an important hormone in the human body. It is secreted by the pituitary gland that is located in the brain. The growth hormone is a major product of the pituitary gland and is specifically produced by somatotrophs in the anterior part. The growth hormone is often referred to as somatotrophin and is responsible for controlling growth and has effects in metabolism processes.
Somatotrophin is specific to every species which means that different species have different growth hormone. It is a peptide consisting of 191 amino acids. It is secreted in explosions and not secreted throughout the day. The secretion of growth hormone increases before sleeping. The amount of secretion of somatotrophin, together with thyroid and sex hormones, affect the height of the individual. Aside from affecting growth, somatotrophin also plays a role in controlling metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fat. Growth hormone is very important in every individual's maintenance of body composition.
The production of growth hormone is increased and decreased by certain factors. These factors include stress, nutrition, exercise and sleep. However, the primary regulators of HGH are growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), somatostatin and Ghrelin. GHRH stimulates the synthesis and production of the growth hormone. Somatostatin is a peptide produce by hypothalamus and stops growth hormone release in response to GHRH and other motivating factors. Ghrelin powerfully stimulates production of growth hormone through binding with somatotrophs.
Growth hormone has two distinct types of effects in the body. These effects are;
1.) Direct effects
2.) Indirect effects